Tourette syndrome is a condition that occurs when a person has repetitive, involuntary, non-rhythmic, rapid movements or vocalisations called tics. Tics are often repeated movements, noises, and sounds. Some tics may be sudden and jerky, while others may be more subtle. The number of tics varies from person to person.
The exact cause of tics is not known, but researchers believe they may be related to changes in the brain. Researchers also believe that the brain may become hyperactive when the person tries to suppress a tic, and this leads to the development of the tics.
People who have Tourette syndrome usually start showing tics in their childhood. Many people with Tourette syndrome have learning difficulties and attention problems.
Tourette syndrome affects men and women equally, but it is more common in boys than girls.
Causes of Tourette syndrome
Tourette syndrome is a very rare disorder that is not well understood. Researchers do not know exactly what causes Tourette syndrome. However, they believe that the cause of Tourette syndrome is likely to be multifactorial.
Researchers think that Tourette syndrome is linked to genetic factors and environmental factors, such as infections, allergies, and head injury. In addition, Tourette syndrome may be associated with an autoimmune disorder, such as type 1 diabetes or thyroid disease.
Signs and symptoms of Tourette syndrome
Some people have tics that are similar to those that occur in a medical condition called chronic motor and vocal tics. These types of tics are also known as primary tics. Other people develop tics as a result of psychological stress. These types of tics are known as secondary tics.
Tourette syndrome usually begins in childhood or adolescence. A person with Tourette syndrome may experience a wide variety of tics. Some of the most common tics are:
- Making abrupt, sudden movements, such as jumping, flapping the hands, and running
- Repeated noises, such as grunting, sniffling, or screaming
- Words or phrases that are not under the person’s control
- Involuntary words and sounds that sound like swearing
The frequency of tics varies from person to person. Some people have a few tics a day, while others have more than 100 tics a day.
Treatment for Tourette syndrome
There is no cure for Tourette syndrome. However, there are several treatments that can help a person control the tics.
Medications used to treat Tourette syndrome can be divided into four groups:
Antidepressants are medications that can be used to treat major depressive disorders. They work by helping a person feel better. Antidepressants are not recommended for treating Tourette syndrome because of their side effects.
Antipsychotics are medications that can be used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. These medications are not recommended for treating Tourette syndrome because of their side effects.
Psychotherapy is a type of counseling that focuses on behavior and thinking. Psychotherapy can be helpful for people who are struggling with their thoughts and feelings. There is no evidence that psychotherapy is helpful for treating Tourette syndrome.
Surgical procedures may be done to remove some of the nerve fibers that are causing the tics. This procedure is called neurosurgery. Neurosurgery is usually performed on the brainstem. The surgery is considered to be successful if the tics are reduced in number or stopped completely.
Tourette syndrome can make a person’s life difficult. It can also affect the person’s relationships with friends, family, and teachers. If you think that you or someone you know may have Tourette syndrome, it is important to discuss the problem with your psychiatric doctor in Bhopal.
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